• Genetic association with restless leg syndrome in christian louboutin sale outlet end stage renal Christian Louboutin Damenschuhe disease Restless legs syndrome(Rls)In end stage renal disease(Esrd)Is a common form of symptomatic rlsAndis associatEd withincreasEd mortalityAndrEducEd quality of life.1 The prevalence of RLS ranges between 18.4%2And45.8%3 in ESRD patients of European descent.Both rls in esrdAndidiopathic rls(Irls)Are diagnosEd basEd on the clinical presentationof four main symptoms.These are specifiEd in the essential diagnostic criteria definEd by the international rls study Group(Irlssg)4: (1)An urge to move the legs, usually accompaniEd by unpleasant sensations; (2)Precipitation of symptoms by restAndinactivity;(3)Symptom relief by movement;And(4)Worsening appearance in the evening or at night.An abnormal increase in periodiclimb movements in sleep(Plms) further supports the diagnosisAndis present in 80 89% of Rls patients.5For iRLS, a relatively strong genetic contribution has been demonstratEd.6 Genome wide association studies(Gwas) in Irls cases from GermanyAndIceland identifiEd variants at four loci encompassingthe genes MEIS1, BTBD9, MAP2K5/SKOR1,AndPTPRD. 7 9 Replication studies in Irls cases from the USAAndEurope (Czech Christian Louboutin Pumps Republic, Austria,AndFinland) confirmEd the associationof MEIS1AndBTBD9.The map2k5/skor1 locus was replicatEd in the european cases but showEd only a trend for association in the us cases.10 11 With regard to ESRD, association studies hAve identifiEd more than 20 variants contributing to disease susceptibility. 12 There is no overlap between these variantsAndthe known Irls associatEd variants.The pathophysiology of rls in esrd remains to be elucidatEd. So far, comparing clinicalAndbiochemical parameters, such asdurationAndfrequency of dialysis treatment or various components of phosphateAndiron metabolism, in Rls positiveAndRls negativeEsrd patients yieldEd ambiguous results. 3 13 18IfAndto what extent the susceptibility to Rls in Esrd is influencEd by a genetic prEdisposition is not known. Since Rlsin EsrdAndIrls are characterisEd by the same key symptoms, they possibly share genetic risk factors.Esrd patients who aGreEd to participate in the study answerEd a self administerEd diagnostic questionnaire incorporating thefour essential irlssg criteria.4 19 All patients who answerEd at least one question affirmatively were then examinEd by a clinician specialising in RLS(Jp orng) by face to face interviewAndclassifiEd as 'Rls positive' or 'Rls uncertain' (If less than four diagnostic criteria werefulfillEd)According to this interview.Patients who had answerEd all diagnostic questions negatively in the initial questionnairewere classifiEd as 'rls negative' without a personal interview.Greece(Gr)Esrd patients on maintenance haemodialysis were recruitEd between January 2007AndDecember 2009 in seven dialysis centresin centralAndnorthern Greece.In brief, patients were interviewEd(First screening), using the four IRLSSG criteria, bya nephrologist(Av)Or neurologist(Ed)Trained by rls experts(GMHAndIS).4 20 The diagnosis of RLS was confirmed in a subsequent personal interview conducted by an expert Christian Louboutin boots neurologist(Gmh or is).In both populations, family history of rls(Defined as the proband's report of at least one relative of up to the third degree

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